The Korea Society Of Educational Studies In Mathematics
[ Article ]
Journal of Educational Research in Mathematics - Vol. 31, No. 1, pp.63-81
ISSN: 2288-7733 (Print) 2288-8357 (Online)
Print publication date 28 Feb 2021
Received 09 Jan 2021 Revised 26 Jan 2021 Accepted 02 Feb 2021

Improving the Teaching of Estimation through an Analysis of Textbook Activities

Chang, Hyewon* ; Nam, Jihyun**, ; Kim, Beomjin*** ; Pak, Yujin****
*Professor, Seoul National University of Education, South Korea
**Teacher, Seoul Imun Elementary School, South Korea
***Teacher, Seoul Taereung Elementary School, South Korea
****Teacher, Seoul Yangjae Elementary School, South Korea

Correspondence to: Teacher, Seoul Imun Elementary School, South Korea,


Measurement involves actual measuring or estimating to generate a quantitative understanding of a phenomenon. Estimation in particular refers to the process of obtaining measurements without a measuring tool. This paper aims to investigate didactical implications for estimation by analyzing the estimation activities of textbooks. To this end, we focused on estimation activities in elementary school mathematics textbooks from the seventh to the 2015 revised national curriculum, analyzing them based on activity quantity, estimation type, and estimation strategy. As regards length, the estimation activities were presented appropriately in terms of quantity, type, and strategy. However, other attributes were insufficient in quantity while some activities showed biases and limitations with few estimation strategies to use in a variety of contexts. Based on these results, we propose the inclusion of achievement standards for time, area, and volume and argue that the textbook should address various types of and strategies for estimation activities.


estimation, length, time, capacity, weight, angle, area, volume, textbook analysis


  • Baroody, A. J., & Coslick, R. T. (1998). Fostering children's mathematical power. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. []
  • Bright, G. W. (1976). Estimation as part of learning to measure. In D. Nelson, & R. E. Reys (Eds.), Measurement in school mathematics (1976 Yearbook). (pp. 87-104). Reston, VA: NCTM.
  • Byun, H. & Shin, H. (2009). An analysis of the elementary school teacher`s current instruction for measurement. The Journal of Korea Elementary Education, 20(12), 55-77. []
  • Coburn, T. G., & Shuttle, A. P. (1986). Estimation in measurement. In H. L. Schoen, & M. J. Zweng (Eds.), Estimation and mental computation (1986 Yearbook) (pp. 195-293). Reston, VA: NCTM.
  • Han, K., Ryu, J., & Moon, B. (2004). Investigation on the elementary-school children's ability of estimation and measurement. The Journal of the Smeieccu, 25(1), 383-401.
  • Han, K., Nam, Y., & Yoon, J. (2019). Elementary science and mathematic gifted students’ strategies for measurement estimation of atypical shape. Journal of Gifted/Talented Education, 29(4). 541-557. []
  • Jeon, H. (2020). An analysis on the estimation skills and strategies of the sixth graders. Unpublished master’s thesis, Gwangju National University of Education.
  • Kim, T. (1997). An analysis of achievement scores of elementary students in the area of measurement. Unpublished master’s thesis, Korea National University of Education.
  • Ko, J. (2010). Textbook analysis about length estimation and exploration for an alternatives. Communications of Mathematical Education, 24(3). 587-610.
  • Lee, S., Lee, J., & Park, K. (2018). A comparative analysis of measurement domain of elementary school mathematics curriculum in Korea and Japan: centered on extensive quantity. Journal of the Korean School Mathematics Society, 21(1), 19-37. []
  • Ministry of Education(2015). MathematicsCurriculum. Notification of the Ministry of Education No. 2015-74 [vol. 8].
  • Ministry of Education (2018a). Mathematics 3-2. Seoul: Chunjae Education.
  • Ministry of Education (2018b). Mathematics teacher’s guidebook 3-2. Seoul: Chunjae Education.
  • Nam, S., Park, S., Shin, J., Ryu, S., Cho, J., & Kim, O. (2003). Development of mathematical education program for elementary school teachers. Ministry of Education & Human Resources Development.
  • NCTM (2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
  • Pang, J., Kwon, M., Kim, M., Choi, I., & Sunwoo, J. (2016). A comparative analysis of capacity and weight in elementary mathematics textbooks of Korea, Japan, Singapore, and the US. Journal of Elementary Mathematics Education in Korea, 20(4), 627-654.
  • Park, K. (2015). An analysis on types and strategies of estimation in measurement in the textbooks according to 2009 revised elementary mathematics curriculum. Journal of Elementary Mathematics Education in Korea, 19(3), 267-287.
  • Park, S. (2007). An analysis of the strategies for measurement estimation adopted by fifth and sixth graders. Unpublished master’s thesis, Korea National University of Education.
  • Reys, R. E., Lindquist, M. M., Lambdin, D. V., & Smith, N. L. (2015). Helping children learn mathematics.