The Korea Society Of Educational Studies In Mathematics
[ Original Article ]
Journal of Educational Research in Mathematics - Vol. 31, No. 2, pp.179-210
ISSN: 2288-7733 (Print) 2288-8357 (Online)
Print publication date 31 May 2021
Received 01 Apr 2021 Revised 26 Apr 2021 Accepted 29 Apr 2021

Introduction of Conditional Probability with the Relative Frequency Approach: Focus on the Use of the Frequency Tree Diagram and Simulation

Inyong Choi
Teacher, Hansung Science High School, South Korea

Correspondence to: Inyong Choi, Email:

Copyright © The Korea Society of Educational Studies in Mathematics
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The purpose of this study is to propose and discuss the pedagogical idea of introducing conditional probability with the relative frequency approach. This study developed a learning activity and simulation using the frequency tree diagram and implemented them. The first-year high school students (n=14) were able to construct the concept of conditional probability through a frequency perspective of sequentially obtaining the conditional relative frequency, the limit of the relative frequency, and the theoretical probability. The implications for teaching and curriculum were presented.


conditional probability, relative frequency approach, natural frequency, tree diagram, simulation


No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article wasr eported.


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