The Korea Society Of Educational Studies In Mathematics

Current Issue

Journal of Educational Research in Mathematics - Vol. 31, No. 2

[ Original Article ]
Journal of Educational Research in Mathematics - Vol. 31, No. 2, pp.211-230
Abbreviation: JERM
ISSN: 2288-7733 (Print) 2288-8357 (Online)
Print publication date 31 May 2021
Received 01 Apr 2021 Revised 21 Apr 2021 Accepted 27 Apr 2021

Reliability and Validity of Mathematics Anxiety Scale for High School Students
Bo-myoung Ok1 ; Changyeon Lee2 ; Sang S. Choi-Koh3,
1Lecturer, Dankook University, South Korea
2Researcher, Dankook University, South Korea
3Professor, Dankook University, South Korea

Correspondence to : Sang S. Choi-Koh,

Copyright © The Korea Society of Educational Studies in Mathematics
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study evaluates the factorial structure of the Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Students (MASS) using data from 1,272 high school students. To this end, we used the mathematical anxiety rating scale for middle and high school students developed by Ko and Yi (2011). An exploratory factor analysis of the response data from the first sample (636 students) eliminated 31 of the 65 items of the original MASS, generating the MASS-Short Version (MASS-SV), a mathematical anxiety scale for high school students with four factors-mathematical problem solving, mathematical learning methods, mathematics test, and mathematics class. A confirmatory factor analysis of the MASS-SV using the responses of the second sample (636 students) revealed that the model fit indices were acceptable and did not differ significantly from those of the original MASS. The MASS-SV derived from this study is a valid and reliable mathematical anxiety measurement tool for high school students; it also helps the students save time and provide quality responses. Future research on the progress of math anxiety in students should identify trends in math anxiety or the relationship between variables such as achievement, attitude toward mathematics, and career path in relation to math anxiety.

Keywords: mathematical anxiety scale, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, reliability, validity


No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article wasr eported.

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